English Toy Terrier and Miniature Pinscher

English Toy TerriersEnglish Toy Terriers

This page contains two smooth coated toy dogs of roughly the same size. Beginning with English Toy Terrier (Black and Tan), this breed is still called the Toy Manchester in USA and Canada because it is considered the toy variety of the Manchester Terrier. This page also includes another European ratter, the Miniature Pinscher which, at first glance looks remarkably similar to the English Toy Terrier but originated in Germany.

History of the English Toy Terrier (Black and Tan)

English Toy Terrier (Black and Tan) c 1876English Toy Terrier (Black and Tan) c 1876

In England, the Black and Tan smooth coated Terrier is arguably the oldest identifiable Terrier, mentioned in the Doomsday Book from 1066. Known in the rapidly growing town of Manchester since the early 1800's, it is separated by weight into two separate breeds. The  larger dog (over 7 pounds) is called the Manchester Terrier and is classified in the Terrier Group. But it is the smaller dog (under 7 pounds) that is considered here and is classified in the Toy Group both by the Kennel Club (UK) and in Australia where is called the English Toy Terrier (Black and Tan) but has, at various times, been called the Black and Tan Toy Terrier, Manchester Miniature Terrier and  Manchester Toy Terrier.

In the Victorian era when they were becoming popular, they were prized both for their ratting ability and good looks. But Victorian women desired a smaller Manchester. So a toy was developed by repeatedly breeding smaller Manchester's.  Being under 7 lbs. he was the ideal ladies companion - a smart streamlined little dog while still able to rat successfully.

The English Toy Terrier becomes a Pure Breed

Manchester and English Toy Terrier (Black and Tan) c 1881Manchester and English Toy Terrier (Black and Tan) c 1881

From England, on the left we have the Toy Terrier 'Belle' who won at Birmingham in 1881 as did the Manchester Terrier 'Queen lll' who won at the same Show. This engraving emphasizes that the English (Black and Tan) Toy Terrier, weighing 3 - 4 pounds, is an exact replica of the Manchester Terrier then weighing 15 - 16 pounds. Except for size, the little one should be an exact copy of the larger one except in size, possessing equal hardihood and spirit[6].

English Toy Terrier (Black and Tan) c 1859English Toy Terrier (Black and Tan) c 1859

He was recognized by the Kennel Club (UK) in 1860 and appears in Division 2 of the first English Stud Book as a Toy Terrier under 5 pounds. His size is also demonstrated by the accompanying drawing of the Toy Terrier standing beside a bucket and broom.

In America, with regular trade between USA and Manchester in England, it is no surprise that this small Toy English Black-and-tan terrier appeared in American Stud Book from 1886. For the next 40 years it was called 'Toy Terrier other than Yorkshire'[3]. But during the 1930's it was re-named 'Toy Manchester Terrier' a name by which it is still called in USA today.

English Toy Terrier c 1994English Toy Terrier c 1994

Meanwhile in England with the name change in USA combined with some minor variations in the breed standards in these two countries, the Toy Manchester of America and the English Toy Terrier (Black and Tan) of England had become two separate breeds.

However, in 2005 the Kennel Club (UK) realized the difficulties of splitting the gene pool. So today the interbreeding between the Toy Manchester of USA and the English Toy Terrier (Black and Tan) of UK has been resumed which has generally progressed the breed across the world.

Black & Tan imported 1891Black & Tan imported 1891

History of the English Toy Terrier in Australia

In Australia, the English Toy Terrier was exhibited at the first dog show held in Melbourne, Australia in 1864[5] where 8 were listed as Smooth-Haired Terriers black and tan or black, under 7 pounds. Then in our first Stud Book, Tyzack's Annual[4] , 1 import and another 24 including 'Halifax Ben' (pictured) were listed. Small bands of enthusiasts have kept this breed alive, albeit spasmodically, ever since. As this is an Australian website based on English Breed Standards, inter-breeding with the American Toy Terrier is allowed here but the breed is still called the English Toy Terrier (Black and Tan).

The English Toy Terrier (Black and Tan) Today

5 English Toy Terriers (Black & Tan)5 English Toy Terriers (Black & Tan)

A constant band of devotees over two centuries has ensured this elegantly shaped sleek black-and-tan toy terrier with its stunning markings has survived without suffering the same exaggerations as most other breeds demanded by the show ring over the same period.

The English Toy Terrier (Black and Tan) is a Toy with Terrier characteristics but at the same time should look elegant and sleekly built.

English Toy (Black & Tan)English Toy (Black & Tan)

His wedge-shaped head should be long and narrow with a flat skull, clean through the cheeks and a slight stop. The muzzle should be well filled up under eyes, with tight lips housing a normal scissors bite. The relatively small dark almond shaped eyes, black nose and characteristic candle-flame ears complete his unique expression, typifying the English Toy Terrier. The accompanying picture demonstrates how the thin leather of this high placed ear with its slightly pointed tips, faces the front.

English Toy (Black and Tan)English Toy (Black and Tan)

The neck should be long and graceful, slightly arched, sloping elegantly into well laid shoulders. The elbows are set close to chest providing a straight front with fine bone.  The body is compact, with the back very slightly curving from behind shoulder to loin, falling again to root of tail. The chest should be narrow and deep with ribs well sprung, the loins well cut up and the buttocks gently rounded, this graceful outline being completed by a low set tail which should not reach below the hock.

English Toy (Black and Tan)English Toy (Black and Tan)

He moves with a strong, driving power from the rear with a front to match, so the dog flows smoothly over the ground indicating true soundness. Ideally the English Toy Terrier should stand 10 to 12 inches high and weigh 6 to 8 pounds.

His colour is most important and has been ruthlessly selected for over two centuries. The placement of the black in relation to the tan has been meticulously selected for by judges, breeders and enthusiasts, making the English Toy Terrier unique. The colour is explained in detail by following this link to the Manchester Terrier.

History of the Miniature Pinscher

Reh Pinschers c 1880Reh Pinschers c 1880

The Reh Pinscher or German Smooth Hair Pinscher was so named around 1500 because it resembled a small red deer found in the forests of Germany. At that time it was described as a 'fairly utility size of breed'. In 1836 the small breed was mentioned for the first time by Dr Reinchenbach who stated:

"the colour was often black and sometimes also black and tan, that he was an agreeable companion, always minded his own business and was a good ratter and rodent hunter".

Miniature Pinscher (Red)Miniature Pinscher (Red)

Although dog shows commenced in Germany in 1863, the breeding of the Reh Pinscher did not begin until 1870. By 1878 there was a real differentiation between the larger Pinschers and the smaller ones which were finding favour in the South of Germany.

The Miniature Pinscher becomes a Pure Breed

But by the time the German Pinscher Club was formed in 1895, small dogs were becoming  favoured by ladies as they were elsewhere in the world. However, the Reh Pinscher failed to gain popularity at that time because it was believed that he refused to act like a gentleman, preferring odorous stables and rats and mice to the silken cushion in the great house of his owners! Despite this, the breed flourished and by 1912 at Stuttgart it is recorded that more than 1,000 were present at one particular dog show. As his fame spread outside Germany, he became known as the Miniature Pinscher[1].

History of the Miniature Pinscher in Australia

Min Pinscher (Black and Tan)Min Pinscher (Black and Tan)

In Australia in 1948, Mr George Byron imported Brazen of Tavey in whelp, the progeny attracting the attention of Mrs Margaret Spira. With the support of her husband Mr Harry Spira, Margaret bought Tasso Little Red Eva and Tasso Simba from Mr Byron, establishing the 'Pindom' kennels in NSW. They imported more dogs and sold the progeny to high profile people such as Frank Longmore and also founded early kennels like 'Minelphi'. Around the same time imports also came into Queensland and, as other imports followed from both UK and USA, a solid foundation for this breed was laid[2].

The Miniature Pinscher Today

Hackney Action (Front)Hackney Action (Front)

The Miniature Pinscher is a square, elegant smooth coated dog with a precise hackney gait. This gait distinguishes it from any other breed. With its flat skull, the head should look more elongated and narrow than short and round, without excessive cheeks. The muzzle should be the same length as the skull, rather strong, housing a normal scissors bite. The dark eyes should be of medium size and although the ears seen are usually pricked, dropped ears are equally correct.

Hackney Action (Side)Hackney Action (Side)

The neck is strong and graceful, flowing into a straight topline which slopes towards the rear with the tail set continuing the topline but carried a little higher. The forechest is well developed and moderately broad, and the outline completed with a moderately tucked up belly. The forelegs are straight with medium bone, with the elbows working close to the body. The muscular well developed hindquarters with their good sweep of stifle complements the front angulation allowing for the true hackney gait front and back, so typical of this breed.

He comes in solid red but when he is black, blue or chocolate, he has sharply defined tan markings similar to the Manchester Terrier, without the thumb marks. He stands 10 - 12 inches high.

Comparison between the English Toy Terrier and the Miniature Pinscher

English Toy Terrier Miniature Pinscher
Country of Origin England Germany
Size 10 - 12 inches (25 - 30.5 cm) 10 - 12 inches (25 - 30.5 cm)
Colour Specifically defined Black and Tan with pencilling on the toes and a thumb mark on each pastern Solid red or black, blue or chocolate with sharply defined tan markings with black pencilling on toes without thumb marks except chocolates which have brown pencilling.
Eng Toy Terrier (Black and Tan)Eng Toy Terrier (Black and Tan) Min Pin (Chocolate and Tan)Min Pin (Chocolate and Tan)
Gait Front movement akin to an 'extended trot' with a smooth, easy hind action combined with drive, resulting in true soundness. The co-ordinated but precise hackney is the Miniature Pinscher's most distinguishing feature.
Head Although the skull is flat, the head is long and narrow with a wedge-shaped appearance both in profile and when looking from the front. The nose is black. The skull is flat but the head is more elongated and narrow than short and round. The nose black but chocolate and blue dogs it may be self-coloured.
Ears Candle shaped erect ears are unique to the English Toy. May be pricked or dropped
Neck Long and graceful Strong yet graceful
Chest Narrow and deep with finely boned legs Well developed and moderately broad with medium boned legs
Feet Two middle toes longer than others but hare feet undesirable Catlike
Topline Curves very slightly from behind shoulder to loin, falling again to root of tail. Straight sloping slightly to tail
English Toy (Black and Tan)English Toy (Black and Tan) Miniature Pinscher (Red)Miniature Pinscher (Red)
Body Body compact but in correct proportion to the head and legs. Square with straight back
Tail Set low Set high

References and Further Reading

[1] Viva Leone Ricketts - "The Complete Miniature Pinscher" Published by Denlingers, Middleburg, Va Canada 1957 Pages 7 - 10

[2] 'The History of Purebred Dogs in Australia' published by OzDog Newspaper 1997, Miniature Pinschers by Elaine Cross Page 226.

[3] Dixie Dempsey, "The Complete Toy Manchester Terrier" published by Milo G Denlinger, printed in the USA 1950 Chapter 1 Page 25

[4] "Tyzack's Annual" Compiled by T.W.Tyzack and C.S. Turner published by the Victorian Poultry and Kennel Club 1912, printed by Bellmaine Bros., Printers 66 - 70 Flinders Lane Melbourne Australia, just one one import 'Jack' on Page 93 whose pedigree could traced so was assumed that the 21 in the Stud Book on P. 54 were bred down from larger ones

[5] Catalogue of the First Exhibition of Sporting & Other Dogs, Thursday & Friday April 7 & 8, 1864 promoted by the Council of the Acclimatisation Society, printed in Melbourne by Mason & Firth, Printers, Flinders Lane West

[6] J.H.Walsh, under the name 'Stonehenge', 'The Dogs of the British Islands' (Fifth Edition) Published by 'The Field' Office, 346 Strand, W.C.London 1886. Part lll Non-Sporting Dogs Book lV Toy Dogs, Chapter ll Smooth Toy Dogs. The Smooth Toy Terrier Page 278 -9