Saint Bernard pup
The Saint Bernard is a massively large breed of dog with ancient origins. Developed by Swiss monks centuries ago specifically to rescue people lost in snow blizzards or buried by avalanches, the instinctive behaviour of Saint Bernards is legendary. The barrels traditionally attached to the dogs' collars brought spirits to travellers found trapped in the snow.
The Ancient Trade Route
Saint Bernards 1877
Historically, the Saint Bernard Pass was the trade route that ran over the top of the Swiss Alps connecting Switzerland and Italy. As it winds through these steep mountains, it passes a Hospice that has been occupied by Monks since around 1,000 AD. It was written in 'The Pilgrims Guide of Saint Iago di Compostela printed in France in 1139 AD that
"Hospices are sacred places, houses of the Lord, indispensable for the welfare of holy pilgrims, the rest for the needy, the consolation of the ailing, peace for the soul of the dead and assistance to the living".
St Bernards c 1695
Saint Bernard was the Archdeacon who founded this famous Hospice. The Monks who lived there became renowned for their hospitality. Food and shelter was offered to all travellers who sought a place to rest during the arduous journey across the ice covered mountains. The dogs who bear the name of the Archdeacon of Saint Bernard would have probably existed long before there were any records of them. But in 1695 AD not only did the Italian artist Salvatore Rosa sketch them, but also an unknown artist painted them in the work shown here which still hangs in the Hospice today.
The History of the Saint Bernard
Hospice St Bernards pre-1800
Back to ancient Roman times Before Christ, when descendants of the Molossian dogs spread from Ancient Greece across Europe with the early settlers, they occupied valleys including those of what is now Switzerland. Many of these were Livestock Guardian Dogs. Other names they have been given are 'Talhunds', 'Valley Dogs' and 'Alpine Mastiffs'. It would be another ten centuries before the trade route between Switzerland and Italy became used by pilgrims. It was even another six centuries later that the Saint Bernards of the Hospice became noticed. So three Centuries before the tunnel through the mountains was built, these giant dogs had already earned considerable fame rescuing people who were caught in avalanches and snow storms whilst attempting this crossing.
St Bernard (Rough) c 1886
These dogs of the Hospice are a wonderful example of selective breeding. The Monks systematically developed a type of dog which had the amazing ability to find humans by scent during severe snow storms and bark to alert the Monks they had found a person. This could be at a distance of up to 800 feet through blinding winds and snow, or buried at a depth of 5 - 7 feet. Once found, these dogs would instinctively dig the person out of the snow and then assist in getting him up on his feet. Whether the Monks had arrived or not, the dog would then guide the person back to the Hospice.
'Barry' in the Bern Museum
The mind boggles at the descriptions some of these dogs' feats. For example one famous dog 'Barry' supposedly returned to the Hospice carrying a young boy on his back. It is also recorded Barry saved 40 other people. He became so famous that he is now stuffed and mounted the Natural History Museum of Bern, the capital of Switzerland.
The Saint Bernard has been described as:
"As big as canine structure will permit, as heavy in bone as his work requires, as gentle and yet indestructible as we hope all members of our family will be" [1a]
The Saint Bernard becomes a Pure Breed
Saint Bernards (Rough and Smooth)
The first recorded arrival of a Saint Bernard in UK was in 1815. Because of their immense size, the British first regarded them as some sort of curiosity. In 1820, the famous artist Landseer painted a dog and bitch and called them Alpine Mastiffs. More importations followed with scant information about them. As the fame of the Saint Bernard grew, one English source Youatt, called them 'Bernadine Dogs'. Because of their grand colossal form and vast power another English source, Idestone called them 'St Bernard Mastiffs'. Meanwhile a third source, Stonehenge called them 'The Mount Saint Bernard dogs' and described details of their physical features, together with this drawing of the Rough and Smooth Varieties. This variation in names was not unusual during the mid-1800's because dog shows, Kennel Clubs and Stud Books were in still their infancy.
By the 1860's what were described as fine specimens were exhibited in Paris and, from 1863 in England. This meant that when severe storms struck at the Hospice of Saint Bernard, dogs from England were sent back to the Hospice of Saint Bernard as replacements. By 1874, the Saint Bernard became one of the few European breeds to appear in the First English Stud Book.
The Saint Bernard in Australia
Ch 'Fairfax' imported 1892
In 1857 the first Saint Bernard came to Victoria when Mr J Kay imported a male. By 1901 a massive 34 more had been imported into Australia, but not many puppies were registered despite the St Bernard, Mastiff and Newfoundland Club being formed in 1891.
'Geraint' imported 1892
Of these imported dogs, Rhoderick Dhu and Baron of Greystroke were imported into Adelaide by Captain Clarke. Also into Adelaide came Ch.Fairfax (pictured) to Sir Edwin Smith but, although purported to be a magnificent dog it appears he was not used much at stud. Then to Newcastle, New South Wales came 'Geraint' while 'Pattie' came to Victoria. So the foundation was laid in those early days for the Saint Bernard to prosper here. It appears through scant records that the Saint Bernard has enjoyed but consistent popularity by a small band of enthusiasts ever since.
The Saint Bernard Today
Saint Bernard (Short Haired)
The first striking feature of the Saint Bernard is his size, with the males measuring 70 cm to 90 cm (27 ½ to 35 ½ inches) and the bitches 65 cm to 80 cm (25 ½ to 31 ½ inches) or even exceeding the upper limits of this height. The height to length body proportion should be 9:10.
They come in smooth haired or long haired varieties. Their primary colour is white with small or large clear red patches or an unbroken clear to dark red or reddish-brown mantle covering the back and flanks. Dark shadings on the head and symmetrically on the mask are desirable but a slight touch of black shading on the body is only tolerated. The chest, feet, tip of tail, muzzle band, blaze and patch on the neck are white, preferably with a white collar.
The head is powerful with the length of muzzle slightly longer than one third the total length of the head. The skull is broad and slightly rounded when viewed both in profile and from the front. But when the dog is alert, the set-on of the ears and the top of the skull form a straight line because the occiput is only moderately developed. The sides of the skull slope in a gentle curve over the strongly developed high cheekbones.
Saint Bernard (Long Haired)
The stop is pronounced causing the frontal furrow to run up the middle of the skull. The wrinkles on the forehead above the eyes converge towards this frontal furrow and are more obvious when the dog is alert.
St Bernard (Aust) 1936
The bridge of the nose is broad, square and straight despite a slight groove. The nostrils are well opened and black and the lips are also black. The flews are strongly developed, but not too pendulous, forming a wide curve towards the nose with the corners of the mouth visible. The eyes are of medium size, moderately deep set and dark brown in colour. The completely pigmented eyelids should be as tight as possible with the haw as well as a small fold on the upper eyelids only slightly visible. The triangular, pliable ears are of medium size and have rounded tips. They are set on high and wide with the front edges lying close to the cheeks and the rear edges slightly standing off. The strong, broad jaws close in a normal scissors bite, a level bite or a reverse scissors bite is also acceptable.
Saint Bernard (Short Haired)
The neck is strong, of sufficient length with the dewlap moderately developed.The strongly boned forelegs are straight and parallel with a slightly sloping pasterns.The oblique shoulder blades are shorter than the upper arms and the elbow joint fits closely to the ribcage. The feet are strong and tight with well arched toes. The withers are well defined and the chest moderately broad with a deep brisket with well sprung ribs. The back is broad, strong and firm with the topline horizontal up to the loins. The croup is long and hardly sloping, merging gently with the root of the tail.
St Bernard with double dewclaws (1907)
The hindquarters are muscular and broad with a good turn of stifle and parallel hocks that do not stand too close together. It is interesting to note that the modern Breed Standard calls for dewclaws on the hind legs to be tolerated if they do not hinder the movement. However historically, like the Pyrenean Mountain Dog, hind dewclaws were important to the Saint Bernard so the dog could maintain grip on rocky mountain faces of steep slopes.
Saint Bernard (Long Haired)
The tail is long with the last vertebra at least reaching to the hock joint. When relaxed the tail hangs straight down or the last third is slightly turned up, but when animated it is carried higher. The Saint Bernard's harmonious, far reaching gait should have balanced reach and drive from the hindquarters with the front and hind feet moving forward in a straight line.
Saint Bernard (Long Haired) with pup
Although the Saint Bernard comes in short-haired and long-haired varieties, it is sometimes difficult to tell the difference. The short-haired variety has a dense, smooth topcoat, plenty of undercoat and the breeches and tail have somewhat more hair. With the long-haired variety, there is still plenty of undercoat but the topcoat is of medium length. Also the hair over the haunches and the croup is usually somewhat wavy, the front legs feathered and the breeches and tail have somewhat more hair than the short haired variety.
Comparison between the Newfoundland and Saint Bernard
|Historical Purpose||Developed on Canadian Island of Newfoundland to rescue people from the sea so can swim strongly.||Developed by Swiss monks centuries ago specifically to rescue people lost in snow blizzards or buried by avalanches.|
|Size||Males 71 cms (28 ins) and bitches 66 cms (26 ins). They weigh 63.5-68 kgs (140-150 lbs) for a dog and 50-54.5 kgs (110-120 lbs) for a bitch.||Males from 70 cm to 90 cm (27 ½ to 35 ½ inches) and bitches 65 cm to 80 cm (25 ½ to 31 ½ inches) or even exceeding the upper limits of this height|
|Colour||Dull jet black with a tinge of bronze, brown which is chocolate both with or without a splash of white on the chest and toes. Alternatively evenly marked black and white called a Landseer.||Primarily colour is white with small or large clear red patches of clear to dark red or reddish-brown covering the back and flanks with dark shadings on the head. The chest, feet, tip of tail, muzzle band, blaze and patch on the neck are white.|
|Coat||Oily double coat||Smooth haired or long haired|
Slightly arched with prominent brows and sloping stop.
|Powerful with a pronounced stop causing the frontal furrow to run up the the skull. Wrinkles on the forehead above the eyes|
|Foreface||Muzzle no longer that the skull||Muzzle length one third the total length of the head.|
|Mouth||Normal scissors or level bite||Normal scissors or level bite but reverse scissors acceptable|
|Eyes||Small with tight fitting lids showing no haw||Medium sized with a little haw acceptable|
|Ears||Small blending into and lying close to the head||Triangular, pliable ears of medium size with rounded tips|
|Newfoundland (brown)||Saint Bernard|
|Neck||Sufficient length for a proud head carriage||Medium length with moderate dewlap|
|Legs and feet||Straight legs with webbing between the toes||Straight legs with dewclaws on hind legs tolerated|
|Body||Broad with topline as straight as possible with the body swung between the legs||Broad, strong and firm with horizontal topline|
|Tail||Hanging downwards with just a slight curve at the end||Long with the last vertebra at least reaching to the hock joint with the last third is slightly turned up.|
References and Further Reading
Also published as 2017 - Jane Harvey "Bred to Save Lives" their instinctive behaviour is legendary Published in Dog News Australia (Top Dog Media Pty Ltd Austral NSW) Issue May 2017, Page 10
 Milo Delinger et al 'The New Complete Saint Bernard' Published by Howell Book House New York USA ISBN 0-87605-271-5 Page 16-18
[1a] Ibid., Forward to the 1963 Edition by Rex Roberts Page 9
 'Tyzack's Annual' Compiled by T. W.Tyzack and C.S.Turner Published by the Victorian Poultry and Kennel Club 1912 by Bellamine Bros. Printers, 66-70 Flinders Lane Melbourne Page 91 (Importations) and 48 (Stud Book) Book of Chronicles Page 131.
 W. Beilby 'The Dog in Australasia' published George Robertson & Company in 1897 Chapter the Saint Bernard Pages 186 - 194
 Vero Shaw B.A, "The Illustrated Book of the Dog" Published by Cassell, Petter, Galpin & Co, London, Paris & New York 1881 Chapter VII The St Bernard Pages 54 - 61
[4a] Ibid., 'The points of the Saint Bernard' Page 62
 William Youatt 'The Dog" published 1848 London Charles Knight Fleet Street (under the Superintendence of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.) Page 51
 'Idstone' 'The Dog' Published by Cassell, Petter and Galpin London 1872 Chapter XXIV The Saint Bernard
 Stonehenge, "The Dog in Health and Disease" Third Edition, London: Longmans, Green, and Co 1879 Chapter IV Watchdogs and House-dogs 111 The Mount Saint Bernard Dog Page 211.